Horned Wa-pa-ha (Book Three, Card 33)

The name Arikara means “horn, referring to the tribe’s former custom of wearing the hair with two pieces of bone standing up like horns on each side of their heads.

War bonnets (also known as warbonnets or headdresses) are feathered headdresses worn by male leaders of American Plains Indian tribes who have acquired a high level of respect within their tribe. Originally, they were worn in war, but now they are mostly used for ceremonial purposes. These objects of regalia are regarded as spiritual and political treasures in Native American and First Nations cultures, and they are only worn by individuals who have earned the right and honor through formal recognition by their people. The powder horn, created from the light and hollow horn of a cow, was a constant friend of thousands of frontier people in a world where firearms were indispensable equipment. While powder horns kept gunpowder dry, many owners saw the horn’s smooth surface as the perfect spot to imprint their mark. They carved names, dates, maps, and combat records into the artifacts, as well as just fanciful characters.