Council Rings I (Book Three, Card 25)

A council circle is a characteristic feature at the heart of various North American indigenous societies. The council circle, also known as the talking circle, is a method of group communication that encourages participation from all members. People from all walks of life have taken up the practice. Only the circle member carrying the talking stick, or another meaningful or spontaneous object, is allowed to speak, though he or she may allow others to interject. Indigenous peoples may have utilized talking sticks in the framework of the council circle to build egalitarian forums in the past.